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A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (General Grammar) Randolph Quirk, Sidney Greenbaum, Geoffrey Leech, Jan Svartvik pdf download. A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language (CGEL). .. the gerund – deverbal noun (Quirk et al ) – verbal noun distinctions (Quirk et al pdf>. Read$ [PDF] A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language Author: Randolph Quirk,Sidney Greenbaum,Geoffrey Leech,Jan.
The authors then provide an overview of English grammar. They then plunge into the subject, beginning with verbs and auxiliaries, the semantics of the verb phrase, nouns and determiners, pronouns and numerals, adjectives and adverbs, and the semantics and grammar of adverbials. The book then covers phrases and sentences - Prepositions and prepositional phrases, the simple sentence, sentence types and discourse functions, pro-forms and ellipses, coordination and the complex sentence.
Next, the book covers syntactic and semantic functions of subordinate clauses, complementation of verbs and adjectives, the noun phrase, and theme focus and informative processing.
The last chapter is From Sentence To Text. The are three appendices in the book. Appendix I - Word Formation. Appendix III - Punctuation.
This book contains a detailed look at the grammar and organization of the English language. The diversity in English is greatest in countries where English is a second language and therefore has to be taught. Since in those countries stddents are usually taught by teachers who are themselves not native speakers of English and who have inevitably acquired the language to varying degrees of adequacy, It is not eurprising that the standards of achievement are variable and subject to change.
Some express concern about the excessive internal variability and the ill-acquired control of the language in such situations. Some fear the divisive effect of the emerging institutionalized varieties, which no longer look to native varieties for standards of acceptability.
Despite considerable dialectal differences within each national variety, the education systems have preserved the essential similarity of the national standards.
Many factors are conducive to makihg differences in national varieties familiar and comprehensible: there is the influence of newspapers, magazines, and books on the written medium and of radio, television, and film on the spoken medium. Teachers and students can be made sensitive to, and tolerant of, language variation, and national examination systems can be made flexible enough to take account of variation. Despite a growing tolerance of nonstandard variation in speech, standard forms remain the norm for written English.
The future of English as an international language has also been said to rest on the practicability of teaching the language, especially on a mass scale, to the level required for international usefulness, given the enormous expenditures required for the purpose. It is possible that as developing countries become richer they will be able to increase their expenditure on the teaching of English and raise the levels of teacher and student proficiency.
At all events, programmes have been devised to restrict the goals of language learning, thereby allowing a more tealistic deployment of educational resources, as in the Teaching of English for Specific Purposes, for example for business or scientific communication.
Following earlier attempts such as 'Basic English' that were largely lexical, a proposal has also recently been made for constructing a simplified form of English termed 'Nuclear English' that would contain a subset of the features of natural English; for example, modal auxiliaries such as can and may would be replaced by such paraphrases as be able to and be allowed to.
The simplified form would be intelligible to speakers of any major national variety and could be expanded for specific purposes, for example for international maritime communication. The long-range continuance of English as a second language is also questionable in some countries. The eagerness for rapid technological advancement conflicts with the demands for the establishment of authentic links with past native traditions: objections to an official status for English and calls for its replacement by native languages are expressions of national pride and independence.
Since a good command of English is usually restricted to an elite, we may expect political resentment against a minority 10 The English language second language that brings benefits to those proficient in it. English is likely to be retained as an official language as long as no specific native language is politically acceptable to all, but we can expect that in at least some countries indigenous languages will become sufficiently dominant to acquire sole official status and eventually to displace English.
In such cases English will gradually become recognized as a foreign language. However, irrespectiveof the degree of world influence exercised by the English-speaking countries themselves, English is likely to be retained generally as the medium for higher education as long as the major English-speakingcountries retain their economic and political status.
Some language changes result in the loss of distinctions, but if a distinction is needed the loss will be compensated for. For example, in some regional varieties the distinction between the singular and plural meanings of you has been retained by the use of such expressions as you-all or you guys for the plural meanings cf 6.
The introduction of specific new words or expressions such as prioritize or interface sometimes provokes violent indignation, often conveyed in ethical terms. Usually the objections to the innovations or supposed innovations reflect objections to their typical users. Some of the complaints relate to variants that are in divided usage among speakers of the standard variety; for example, graduated from and was graduated from in American English, or differentfrom and different to in British English.
In yet other instances the forms are clearly recognized as unacceptable in the standard variety such as the multiple negative in Idon't want no moneyfrom no one; cf Relatively few points are at issue. They do not justify generalizationsabout the state of the language as a whole. Some native speakers claim that the use of the language is deteriorating.
One charge is ethical: people are said to be abusing the language, more so than in the past, with intent to conceal,mislead, or deceive, generally through euphemism or obscure language.
Usually, the accusation is directed principally against politicians, bureaucrats, and advertisers, but the abuse is felt to have an 'adverse effect on the language as such. Certainly, the contemporarymass media facilitate the rapid and widespread dissemination of such language abuses.
The other charge is aesthetic or functional: people are said to be using the language less elegantly or less efficiently than in the recent past, a charge that is commonly directed against young people. The charge may or may not have some justification, but in any case is impossible to substantiate. Many variables inhibit the feasibility of making valid and reliable comparisons with earlier periods: for example, the phenomenal growth of the literate population and of the use of the written language.
On varietiesof standard English, cf 1. Since these varieties can have reflexes in any of the types of organization that the linguist distinguishes, this is the point at which we should outline the types, one of which is grammar. When people speak, they emit a stream of sounds. We hear the sounds not as indefinitely variable in acoustic quality however much they may be so in actual physical fact.
On the use of the asterisk and similar symbols, see 1. We similarly observe patterns of stress and pitch. The other major method of linguistic communication is by writing; and for English as for many other languages an alphabetic writing system has been developed, the symbols related in the main to the individual sounds used in the language. Here again there is a closely structured organization which regards certain differences in shape as irrelevant and others for example capitals versus lower case, ascenders to the left or right of a circle, eg: b versus 6 as significant.
Lexicology, grammar, semantics, pragmatics Just as the small set of arabic numerals can be combined to express in writing any natural numbers we like, however vast, so the small set of sounds and letters can be combined to express in speech and writing respectively an indefinitely large number of WORDS.
These linguistic units enable people to refer to every object, action, and quality that members of a society wish to distinguish: in English, door, soap, indignation,find, stupefy, good, uncontrollable, and so on to a totalexceedingthe half million words listed in unabridged dictionaries. These units have a meaning and a structure sometimes an obviously composite structure as in cases like uncontrollable which relate them not only to the world outside language but to other words within the language happy to happiness, unhappy, etc; good to bad, kind, etc; door to room, key, etc.
Words must be combined into larger units, and grammar encompasses the complex set of rules specifying such combination. Meaning relations in the language system are the business of SEMANTICS, the study of meaning, and semantics therefore has relevance equally within lexicology and within grammar.
All types of organization but notably lexicology and grammar enter into the structure of TEXTS, which constitute spoken and written discourse cf Chapter Secondly, the native speaker's comment probably owes a good deal to the fact that he does not feel the rules of his own language - rules that he has acquired unconsciously - to be at all constraining; and if ever he happens to be called on to explain one such rule to a foreigner he has very greatdifficulty.
By contrast, the grammatical rules he learns for a foreign language seem much more,rigid and they also seem clearer because they have been actually soelled out to him in the learning process. But another important pointisrevealed i n this sentence. This is not grammar 'immanent' in a language as our previous uses were, however much they differedin the types of pattern they referred to , but grammar as codified by grammarians: the Academy Grammar.
There is no such Academy for the English language and so our naive native speaker imagines the English speaker has more 'freedom' in his usage. Syntax and inRections The word 'grammar' has various meanings, and since grammar is the subject matter of this book we should explore the most common meanings of the word.
The fact that the past tense of download is bought [inflection]and the fact that the interrogative form of He bought it is Did he download it?
A teacher may comment: -- John uses good grammar but his spelling is awful. But in the education systems of the English-speaking countries, it is possible also to use the term 'grammar' loosely so as to include both spelling and lexicology.
There is a further;use of 'grammar' that derives from a period in which the teaching of Latin gnd Greek was widespread. Since the aspect of Latin grammar on which teaching has traditionally concentrated is the paradigms or model sets of inflections, it made sense for the learner to say: Jespersen wrote a good grammar, and so did Kruisinga. Did you bring your grammars? Naturally, too, the codification may refer to grammar in any of the senses already mentioned.
The codification will also vary, however, according to the linguistic theory embraced by the authors, their idea of the nature of grammar rather than their statementof the grammar of a particular language : Chomsky developed a transformational grammar that differed considerably from earlier grammars.
This meaning of 'grammar' has continued to be used by lay native speakers.
In effect, grammar is identified with inflections, so that nonspecialists may still speak of 'grammar and syntax', tacitly excluding the latter from the former. The termgrammar school used in several English-speakingcountries, though not always with referenceto the same type of school reflects the historical fact that certain schools concentrated at one time on the teaching of Latin and Greek.
One sometimescomes upon the lay supposition that such schools do or should make a special effort to teach English grammar.
The codification of rules The 'codification' sense of grammar is readily identified with the specific codification by a specific grammarian: And this sense naturally leads to the concrete use as in: Latin has a good deal of grammar, but English has hardly any.
Note Rules and the native speaker Nor have we completed the inventory of meanings. The same native speaker, turning his attention from Latin, may comment: French has a well-defined grammar, but in English we're free to speak as we like. The meanings of 'grammar' 1. Thus, in the framework of formal linguistics, some grammarians speak of 'the grammar' as embracing rules not only for syntax but for phonological, lexical, and semantic specification as well.
Note Accidents of intellectual history in the nineteenthcentury result in the fact that an old-fashioned -- Varietiesof English 15 The English language inflections in verbs and nouns cf 3. It is seen to bear on lexicology, for example, in the fact that some nouns and verbs differ only in the position of the stress cf App 1. Here the term refers to a way of speaking or writing that is to be either preferred or avoided. Since we do not have an Academy of the English Language, there is no one set of regulations that could be considered 'authoritative'.
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